Module 3 ELT Management – Interview with a recent candidate

The interview was suggested by Liam who really liked the format of the course and wanted to help us spread this information.

His promised blog post will appear on this very same page in a few weeks.


Meanwhile, here is what he said about our course


Different platforms for online courses

How we combine online spaces for our courses

Every online course needs to fulfill certain functions in order to work well for all concerned

  1. inform
  2. communicate
  3. provide resources
  4. support trainees
  5. allow trainees to socialise
  6. encourage sharing

Clearly, there are overlaps in the functions I have outlined above and all course providers are constantly on the lookout for the perfect platform that does everything, all in one space.

I haven’t found such a space yet – Moodle can do this perhaps on asynchronous courses but if the course is a synchronous one, it may be better to ‘shop’ elsewhere.

Click on the image below to watch a short presentation which we use to introduce our own trainees to their online spaces; in a lighthearted way, of course.


Adobe Connect Pro

As you will note, our top gear teaching tool is Adobe Connect Pro, a virtual learning classroom which we consider  the best available one at the moment; when I was in the process of looking for a VLE, I could not believe that it was possible to have 100 participants all with video and voice, but it is!!!!

Screenshot of one of our Delta recent sessions with identities blurred

Pbworks wikis

Wikis are great both for collaboration as well as for support; we use ours as a resource repository and it is the second major online tool we use – even on the free version you can have up to 5GB space for resources; on the paid option up to 40GBn and despite the multitude of uploads we haven’t filled even 10GB yet.


Our third platform is a free platform which we absolutely swear by,Wiggio. Wiggio is our communication platform and eliminates multiple emails on the same questions/topics as it has its own public feed and the option to message a tutor or a fellow course participant privately. Our trainees can upload assignment proposals, assignments and even have assignment drafts edited online with comments visible (thanks to Zoho Documents which power the app).  I have blogged about this wonderful platform before and will attach a link to my blog post here, for anyone interested in more details, such the live text chat and live audio and video conferences and presentations available:

June Wiggio Group: Cambridge DELTA Trainees

Facebook Closed Group

Finally, we opted to create one more – closed – group on Facebook to be used as a playground by any current or recent trainees. This works as a social connections point where current or new trainees can talk to the ‘veterans’, can ask them about the learner profiles, ask for advice or a suggestion for material but also share photos from an outing or a conference or webinar they have been to, a great blog post which is not related to current course input and might confuse in Wiggio.

Is there one single place that can do all this and still be affordable and flexible enough? Not sure. Adobe Connect solutions at that level seem as expensive as paying rent on one of the most expensive streets in Athens – all right, this is something of an exaggeration. But the point is that if you are not a big university outfit and are looking for online platforms within your means, you might have to use a combination of solutions.

Which ones do you use?

Moodle and Blackboard?  Adobe and something else? Would love to hear about your solutions.

Delta Module 1 Preparation Online mini course


Our Delta Courses are integrated and we like them that way but every term we offer a short 12-15 hour course for our candidates and for people who have been studying on their own but need some tips and tricks for the exam itself.

So, this course will not teach you the main areas of the content but aims to help you pass if you have done the studying on your own!

What this course can do for you

If you have been studying for Module 1 on your own, this course will help you with exam technique, suggestions on managing your time during the exam and strategies for answering the exam questions so that you can get the marks you need in order to pass.

It is not intended as a content introduction course but will give you the strategies you need to answer the questions in the exam. A thorough analysis of the exam questions followed by practice will help you focus on how to study and how to answer more efficiently.

On finishing the course, you can choose to pay an additional 30 euros to have a mock exam paper marked and advice sent to you on what to revise and which areas/questions you need to focus on.

Course Structure

There will be four meetings of 3 hours each – each meeting is divided into two 90 minute webinars

Saturday November 14 12:00 p.m. GMT+2

Session 1  Introduction to Module 1 Written Exam Paper 1 – Tasks 1 & 2
Session 2
 Paper 1 Task 3

Sunday November 15  18:00 p.m. GMT+2

Session 3  Module 1 Paper 1 Task 4
Session 4  
Module 1 Paper 1 Task 5

Saturday November 21 12:00 p.m. GMT+2

Session 5  Module 1 Paper 2 Task 1
Session 6  
Module 1 paper 2 tasks 2 & 3 

Sunday November 22  18:00 p.m. GMT+2

Session 7  Module 1 Paper 2 Task 2 
Session 8  
Module 1 Paper 2 Tasks 2 & 3  

Where sessions will be held

All sessions will be online in our online virtual classroom which is in Adobe Connect Pro

Please note

This is a live sessions course where you can see, hear and speak to the tutor and other course participants 

See image below – an example of one of our current Delta online courses

To participate you MUST HAVE:

  • a fast internet connection
  • a headset and, if possible,
  • a webcam (this is not essential but will enhance communication with the tutor)
  • studied for the course content and have applied for the December 2015 exam or preparing for the June 2016; people who join the course out of curiosity and without having done any background reading already should NOT apply.
Our Online Classroom in Adobe Connect Pro
Our Online Classroom in Adobe Connect Pro

Participants will be able to download all handouts or presentation materials used in their virtual classroom, including sample past exam papers and examiner reports 

Two mock examination papers will be sent to all participants to use for timed practice before the exam.

For a small additional fee you can receive detailed feedback on ONE of these two mock exams if you submit by the 25th of November and no later.

How to Pay

Tuition fees must be prepaid – tuition for the course is 120 euros 

For an additional 30 euros, you can have feedback on one Mock exam paper. Please choose the appropriate payment option on the page linked below.  We accept payments via PayPal where you can use your debit or credit card for payment.

Places will be on a first come first served basis.

Module 1 Online Course payment page

Summary of the Cambridge Delta Module 2 assessment

carolineThe DELTA Module 2 assessment is somewhat complicated to someone unfamiliar with this model of reflective practice in which candidates reflect on the practices, values and beliefs throughout the course and identify and pursue the goals they have set for themselves.

Module 2 Assessment Summary in Table format

I have summarised the various assessment components in a table format to make it easier to visualise – I hope this helps candidates and tutor colleagues on the Delta course.

You can find the latest Cambridge Delta Handbook (2015) embedded below. If you are thinking of following a Delta course, careful reading of this document is necessary!


Students engaged in an activity during a Module 2 teaching assessment



What you need in order to pass Module 2

Both the internal and the external assessment contribute to the final grade.

Pass requirements

  • a Pass grade in both parts of the submitted internally assessed assignment
  • a Pass grade in both parts of the external assessment • completion of both parts of the PDA.

Merit requirements

  • a minimum of a Pass grade for the submitted internally assessed background essay
  • a Pass or Merit grade for the submitted internally assessed lesson • a minimum of a Pass grade for the externally assessed background essay
  • a Merit grade for the externally assessed lesson
  • a Pass in both parts of the PDA.

Distinction requirements

  • a minimum of a Pass grade for the submitted internally assessed background essay
  • a Merit or Distinction grade for the submitted internally assessed lesson
  • a minimum of a Pass grade for the externally assessed background essay
  • a Distinction grade for the externally assessed lesson
  • a Pass in both parts of the PDA.

Where there is a difference in the internal and external grades, the coursework will be moderated and the internal grades and the predicted coursework grade taken into account.

(information taken from the Delta Handbook) 

Images by CELT Athens

Do your Delta at CELT
Do your Delta at CELT

DELTA options and opportunities in 2015


  DELTA options & opportunities in 2015

Face-to-Face in 
Athens 8 weeks

our intensive course

April 6 – June 6

June 15 – August 8

September 28 – December 6

8 weeks to complete your course and  input for Modules 1-3,  one extra week for your Module 2 Assessment and you are done!!! Module 3 is written after the contact course in Athens as you need to be in touch with a class in order to write it.

To participate in this intensive and highly demanding option, ideally, you do need to have finished your CELTA or equivalent course and you need to have done some background reading – before the course starts!

Other courses

Find out about our upcoming courses by clicking here – Coming up in April, May and all through the summer months

The Cambridge CELTA – a great course & international qualification – recommend this course to a colleague!


Online 24 weeks – 
Athens 4 weeks

our blended course

October 3 2015 – March 27 2016

24 weeks to complete your course input for Modules 1-3 and 4 weeks in Athens to complete your Module 2 teaching assessments! You can come to Athens ANY four weeks you can!

More time for reading and reflection – following a course from the comfort of home though does not mean you miss out on the experience of interactive live sessions with some great teachers from around the globe!!!!

Blogs & Social Media

Follow our blogs to keep up with your professional development – be inspired to blog yourself!

Join the CELT Athens page on Facebook to be constantly informed of the latest tools, materials and blog posts

Follow us on Twitter and become a connected educator!


Helping Intermediate Learners Better Understand Cohesion

Helping Intermediate Learners Better Understand Cohesion

                           Caroline teaching one of her previous LSA’s

by Caroline Leaming 2012


Cohesion is regarded by Halliday as ‘the crucial criterion to distinguish text from ‘non-text’ (Y. Liu & K.L. O’Halloran, 2009, p.368). Along with coherence, cohesion plays an important role of creating texture in a text (Halliday and Hasan 2003, p.17). However, based on my experience of teaching Japanese and Saudi students, cohesion appears to cause trouble to learners of all levels of English. These observations were also noted in studies concerning the use of cohesion with EFL students. Crane (2000, p.142) remarks that while Japanese students have a firm grasp on the theoretical structure of the English language, they ‘seem to lack the ability to coordinate functional usage of this knowledge with semantic patterning.’ Research also reveals that even advanced level, non-native speakers of English rely on a ‘restricted repertoire of features in constructing unified text’ (Hinkel, 2001, p111). Recent studies show how Arabic cohesion differs greatly from the conventions in English (Ahmed, 2010, p.218) and explains why my students in Saudi Arabia struggled to understand the importance of repetition and reiteration when writing or speaking in English. In Arabic, it is ‘considered good style to simply repeat the same word several times’ (Murcia & Olshtain, 2000, p.83).

What becomes obvious then is that cohesion in English follows different rules from many of our students’ native languages, therefore time invested studying cohesion in English should not be underestimated. It is for these reasons that cohesion will be considered in this assignment. This examination will pertain to the intermediate learner as this is the level in which the learning of these devices takes prominence. While linguists agree cohesion is essential to texture, the text-forming resources which are believed to constitute cohesion, differ between them. Hassan refers to cohesion in terms of the cohesive devices Theme, Information and Parallelism (Martin, 1992, cited in Liu & O’Halloran, 2009, p369) whereas Martin ‘introduces Collocation and Sequence of Tone but excludes Parallelism.’ Eggins’(2004) view that Cohesion is created from Referential, Lexical and Conjunctive Cohesive devices as well as the use of Theme and Rheme will be adopted for this study.

It should be noted that McCarthy (1991, p.2) warns us that ‘discourse analysis is not a method for teaching languages; it is a way of describing and understanding how language is used. With this in mind, the following section describes the various forms of cohesion. The final section explores problems students have understanding and applying these forms, and offers some suggested solutions that could remedy these issues.

Section One: Analysis of Cohesion

1.1      Conjunctive Cohesion

Conjunctive cohesion involves the use of conjunctions to create and express logical relationships between the parts of a text. Conjunctions act as a “cohesive tie between causes or sections of text in such a way as to demonstrate meaningful pattern between them,” (Bloor. T. & Bloor. M. 2004, p 97). According to Halliday and Matthiessen, (2004, cited in Eggins, 2004, p. 47) the three main types of conjunctions are Elaboration (for example, in fact), Extension (and, also, moreover) and Enhancement (next, likewise, hence, however). Conjunctions add texture by creating semantic unity in texts which makes them ‘unproblematic,’ (Eggins, 2004, p.47)

1.2      Referencing

Referencing allows writers to introduce participants, such as people, places, and things, and then ‘keep track of them once they are in the text’ (Eggins, 2004, p33). Three types of referencing exist. Homophoric refers to the shared information of a culture for example, the Queen. Exophoric refers to information from the immediate context of the situation. These two types of referencing contribute to the texts’ situational coherence (ibid. p.34). The final type of referencing, endophoric, exists in the internal texture of the text and can be categorized into three types; esophoric, in which the referent occurs in the phrase immediately following the presuming referent item. cataphoric, which refers to a referent that has not yet appeared, and anaphoric, which refers to a referent that has appeared earlier in the text.

1.3      Lexical Cohesion

Unlike other forms of cohesion, lexical cohesion is non-grammatical and concerns the relationship between words which are members of the same semantic set. Bloor & Bloor comment that these meaningful relationships between words help create cohesion when they are used together in the same short stretch of written English (Bloor. T. & Bloor. M. 2004, p. 87). Eggins purports that there are two kinds of lexical relations between words; taxonomic (words relate to others through class/subclass or part/whole) and expectancy (where a nominal element is linked with a predictable verbal element). Lexical relations analysis is a way of systematically describing how words in a text relate to one another and can be represented in the form of lexical sets or lexical strings. The importance of students being aware of lexical cohesion was proved in a study conducted amongst Japanese students of English which showed the considerable effect the knowledge of lexical cohesion had on their understanding of texts (Muto, 2007).

1.4      Theme and Rheme

The importance of theme in creating cohesion in a text is supported by Eggins who asserts that the theme/rheme structure of a clause is an essential component in the construction of a cohesive text (Eggins, 2004, p. 326). Theme is the departure point which the writer has chosen for a clause and typically contains familiar or ‘given’ information. Since the aim of this essay is to concentrate on the metafunction of texture, and in particular on its use to create cohesion, the interpersonal properties of theme will not be explored. Instead, the role of textual elements in the position of theme, such as continuity adjuncts and conjunctive adjuncts, will be considered.

Continuity adjuncts are mainly used in spoken discourse. When used as theme, they indicate a speaker’s orientation to the interactive continuity of their contribution (Eggins & Slade, 2004, p.84) and their response to what has previously been said. Examples include, yeah, oh, well. Conjunctive adjuncts are conjunctions such as so, but, and which act as textual theme when positioned before the first topical theme in a clause.


Section Two

Issues for Intermediate Students & Suggested Solutions

This section comprises the principal challenges hindering intermediate, adult learners from using & understanding cohesion and some suggestions for the teacher. Since cohesion can be related to both written and spoken discourse, the following offers a variety of both, indicated with either S (spoken), W(written) or B (both).

2.1    Conjunctive Cohesion

Problem 1 – Misuse of discourse markers

Intermediate students often overuse many discourse markers in oral or written tests, thinking it will gain extra points. However, they are often misused and in fact do the opposite in losing them points. Similar research has been noted by Anderson (1989) and Lindsay (1984) in Murcia & Olshtain (2000, p.206).

Suggested Solutions

Students need additional practice with incorporating discourse markers into their productive work. This can be achieved through:

  • (W) – Gap fill exercises in which the discourse marker is missing and the appropriate one is chosen from a selection. Gradually, as the student’s familiarity with their use grows, the selection is removed, forcing students to recall an appropriate discourse marker by themselves. This works well with analytical & visual students and students with logical-mathematical intelligences.
  • (S) – Giving students in small groups (2-3 students) a pack of discourse marker cards. Students have to start and continue a story using the discourse marker written on the card each time it is their turn to contribute to the story. This is excellent for verbal learners with interpersonal intelligences. The teacher gives students a topic based on the lesson’s context to make the story more relevant.
  • (B) – Cohesion Mingle: Students are given different halves of a sentence, one with a discourse marker, one without. Students find their correct other half. In later lessons, students are asked to write their own sentences on two pieces of card. The teacher collects them in, shuffle them, and redistribute them randomly. Students, once again, have to find the other half of their sentence. Bodily-kinesthetic & interpersonal intelligences respond well to this type of activity. My Saudi intermediate students enjoyed the challenge of making their own materials and being responsible for their learning. This is a technique I have used often in classes teaching conjunctions.
  • (W) – Cutting up short texts (stories, newspaper articles etc…) and asking learners to rearrange them in the correct order. This alerts them to the importance of cohesive devises for linking texts. Spatial intelligences are satisfied by this type of activity.
  • (S) – For visual learners, pictures telling a story are given out, mixed. Students should rearrange the story into a logical sequence and then tell the story using cohesive devices.
  • (B) – Nuttall (1982, p.82) suggests tackling cohesion issues by identifying problems and then asking questions in which the meaning of the cohesive items is made explicit. For example, the clause: The Scottish went there because…, would raise the question, Why did the Scottish go there?’ This may be challenging for some intermediate learners, but could be introduced initially with pre-made cards that students had to match. Gradually, the students write and make the cards which are swapped between groups. This worked particularly well with a number of intelligences in my Saudi class of intermediates such as, kinesthetic, spatial, linguistic, and interpersonal. They were split into teams and had great fun trying to catch the other team out with difficult questions.

2.2    Referencing

Problem 2 – Students have difficulty understanding references

English often creates ambiguity in terms of referential ties. E.g. Bob talked to Hans and then drove his car to Berlin (Murcia & Olshtain, 2000, p.131). Whose car was driven, Bob or Hans, is unknown. When a student’s L1 offers access to additional pronoun features such as gender to help them retrieve the antecedent more easily, students may have difficulty understanding references in English.

Suggested Solutions

Provide activities that ask learners to locate obscure reference and practice identification and utilization.

  • (W) – Give students in groups a place/ person/ thing mentioned in a text and have them work together to highlight with (coloured pens or pencils) all the references back to (or forward to) the place/ person / thing in a text. Repeat the process with another referent. Have groups compare their answers and discuss their results. This activity has worked well with my analytical learners and students with spatial, linguistic and interpersonal intelligences.
  • (B) – Encourage Ss to make reference chains for the main items in the text. Reference chains are used to show the patterns of the main participants in the text and their importance. Students then use higher critical thinking skills to discuss in groups what the intention of the author was when mentioning certain places/ people/ things more often than others. This will appeal to analytical learners and students with linguistic, spatial and logical intelligences. My Japanese learners especially were able to learn much from this type of referencing and would often use this technique in subsequent classes, regardless of the text type. They enjoyed being pushed to think outside the box, which is a skill they are often not encouraged to do at school.

Problem 3 – Distance between the referent and its antecedent confuses students

When referents and antecedents are placed far apart in the text, students’ ability to process the text might be slowed down considerably and students may need to read a second or third time.

Suggested Solutions

  • (W) – Reassure students that reading texts several times to search back for referents and antecedents is not a problem and that in real life, native speakers often have to reread things, as they probably do too in their own L1. If students’ affective filter is raised every time the teacher asks students to do this type of activity, they will not be productive in their learning.
  • (W) – Start slow. Introduce students to progressively difficult references by choosing texts in which the references become gradually further from the antecedents. This will slowly ease students into this type of cohesion and build confidence in their reading abilities.

2.3    Lexical Cohesion

Problem 4 – Unaware of the importance of repetition and reiteration in English

As mentioned previously, (Introduction) some languages do not value the importance of varying repetitions and using different synonyms.

Suggested Solutions

  • (W) – Ask students to identify lexical chains from a text to show how often, different words from the same lexical field are used in English. E.g. family – parents – mother. Students could then be asked to rearrange the chain based on semantic relationships. This exercise alerts learners to the synonyms & hyponyms and words of the same lexical field in a text and shows how important lexis is in creating a cohesive text.
  • (B) – Teach synonymy through Odd One Out games in which students must correctly identify which, out of 3 or 5 items, does not belong in that lexical field. I tried this activity with my younger Saudi learners with excellent results. I believe this worked especially well because a competitive element was added by having groups compete and discuss answers in teams.

Problem 5 Producing cohesive written text

Students struggle to produce cohesively written texts, often because they fail to see the cohesion in their own writing.

Suggested Solutions

  • (W) – Ask students to attempt writing parallel texts. Through contrastive analysis, the importance of the cohesive devices they use naturally in their L1 can heighten their awareness of their importance in English. Parallel texts could also be used as a reading exercise in which students are asked to notice and evaluate the differences in use of cohesive devises between their L1 and English. This would be especially beneficial to Arabic and Japanese learners in which the conventions of cohesion are different to that of English.
  • (W) – Give students a random mixture of sentences and challenge them to discover the connections between them and add appropriate cohesive devices. This will appeal to linguistic and spatial intelligences.
  • (B)In as Few Steps: Give students two random words and ask them to come up with and write/ say in as few steps as possible, a possible connection between them. Students should use cohesive devices to show the connections. This can be made more challenging if a competitive edge is added with other teams. A time limit could be set in which learners must try to come up with as many connections between words, using cohesive devises, as possible in under two minutes.



Taking the metafunction of texture, and concentrating specifically on the role of cohesion, this essay has analysed the different types of cohesion according to Eggins. As cohesion is a difficult area of English for even advanced learners to fully understand, this essay has set out to explore the principle problems intermediate learners face as well as to offer some evaluated solutions and activities.

Section Three: References

Ahmed, A.H. (2010). Students’ Problems with Cohesion and Coherence in EFL Essay Writing in Egypt: Different Perspectives, Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 1 (4), 211-221.

Bloor, T. and Bloor, M. (2004). Functional Analysis of English (2nd Ed.). London: Hodder Education.

Crane, P. A. (2000). Texture in Text: A Discourse Analysis of a News Article Using Halliday and Hansan’s Model of Cohesion. Retrieved on 20th November, 2012 from

Eggins, S. (2004). An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics (2nd Ed.). Great Britain: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Eggins, S. and Slade, D. (2004). Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

Hinkel, E. (2001) Matters of Cohesion in L2 Academic Texts, Applied Language Learning, 12:2. 111-132.

Liu, Y., O’Halloran, K.L. (2009). Intersemiotic Texture: analyzing cohesive devices between language and images. Social Semiotics, 19:4, 367-388.

McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Muto, K. (2007). The Use of Lexical Cohesion in Reading & Writing, 107-129 Retrieved on 19th November, 2012, from

Nuttall, C. E. (1982). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Thornbury, S (2006). An A-Z of ELT. Oxford: Macmillan.

Lesson Plan Download

Caroline Leaming LSA4

Interruptions | A meeting skills activity

Great post and idea for a speaking skills lesson

Image attribution: Meeting by John Benson | Creative Commons by 2.0
Screenshot of Triptico – Image attribution: Meeting by John Benson | Creative Commons by 2.0


Business meeting

Interruptions … it’s something most my learners struggle with and it’s a skill they require daily because no one in a corporate setting can escape attending at least one meeting a day, if not more. To complicate matters, turn taking varies across cultures. In the US, Northern Europe and Japan, interruptions are uncommon and generally considered rude. In France, Brazil and India, interruptions are more common and are sometimes seen as a sign of being engaged. I’ve also observed that some of my learners in India tend to completely shut up when they are in meetings with overseas clients and seniors, to the extent that even when they genuinely need to interrupt to clarify something or provide some information, they don’t.  Here’s an activity that addresses both these issues. For learners who sort of talk over each other, it offers statements that can help them more politely take the turn…

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Cambridge Delta: The Diagnostic Lesson

Very early on on the DELTA course, trainees are required to plan and teach a lesson which their tutor and other fellow trainees observe and evaluate.

Reflection on this lesson which takes account of the experience itself, the trainee’s own perceptions and the oral and written feedback received by the tutor and fellow trainees form the basis of a plan of action for the rest of Module 2 on the course.

At different points, it is this plan of action that the trainee has to look back on and track their own development during their course, take stock and work on areas which are felt to be in need of improvement.

Read Angelos’ blog post of how he sees this experience, its challenges and its benefits and think about your own diagnostic lessons.

It should be said that this seems to be a great way to go whether one is doing a Cambridge DELTA course or not and helps teachers to become reflective and to think of solutions which will keep improving their planning and their teaching.

Marisa Constantinides
Cambridge DELTA Course Tutor

Narratives of a TEFLer


Planning a Delta diagnostic lesson is first and foremost a decision-making process. The answers to questions such as what to teach or how to teach it should be decided well in advance of the planning process. In this post, I will share the steps I followed while preparing for it.

A. The Purpose of The Lesson

Why is one doing a diagnostic lesson is a very important question to spend some time thinking about. In my view, such a lesson serves six purposes:

1. For the candidates to review, hone, and assess their practice in general.
2. For the candidates to review, hone, and assess their practice in relation to Delta-specific criteria.
3. For the candidates to gain experience teaching a group of students, most of whom they will teach again for at least one of their LSAs.
4. For the candidates to familiarize themselves with the reflective practice model…

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